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Additional Resources This section addresses the mitigation of explosion effects on the exterior envelope of a new building designed to meet federal anti-terrorist design requirements.
The recommendations given are primarily focused on meeting the ISC Security Design Criteria, but are also useful for understanding the anti-terrorist design requirements of other government agencies including the U. Department of Defense and U. Although the concepts presented are for new buildings, many of the same concepts may be applied to retrofit of existing buildings.
Both vehicle and hand delivered weapons targeting the exterior envelope are considered. Existing criteria documents vary in the level of detail that they provide and all have room for interpretation.
A 'blast consultant' with expertise in structural dynamics and experience with the governing criteria documents can be a valuable resource for the team throughout design and construction. Often blast consultants are required for projects which meet anti-terrorist design criteria if explicit computation of structural response to explosive loads is required.
Design criteria will give the requirements that this specialist needs to meet such as the number of years of experience and formal technical training in structural dynamics.
Designing security into a building requires a complex series of trade-offs. Security concerns need to be balanced with many other design constraints such as accessibility, initial and life-cycle costs, natural hazard mitigation, fire protection, energy efficiency and aesthetics.
Because the probability of attack is very small, there is a desire for security not to interfere with daily operations of the building. On the other hand, because the effects of attack can be catastrophic, there is a desire to incorporate measures that will save lives and minimize business interruption in the unlikely event of an attack.
The countermeasures should be as unobtrusive as possible to provide an inviting, efficient environment, and not attract undue attention of potential attackers. Security design needs to be part of an overall multi-hazard approach to the design, to ensure that the solution for explosion effects does not worsen the behavior of the building for other hazards.
The primary design objective is to save the lives of those who visit or work in these government buildings in the unlikely event that an explosive terrorist attack occurs.
In terms of building design, the first goal is to prevent progressive collapse which historically has caused the most fatalities in terrorist incident targeting buildings. Beyond this, the goal is to provide design solutions which will limit injuries to those inside the building due to impact of flying debris and air-blast during an incident, and to limit harm to innocent civilians near the building perimeter.
In some cases, secondary objectives may need to be considered such as maintaining critical functions and minimizing business interruption.
The recommendations given are solution-focused. They are intended for designers who are tasked with implementing federally mandated anti-terrorist design criteria into projects, recognizing that these requirements need to be balanced and integrated with many other design constraints such as sustainability, construction and life-cycle costs, constructability, architectural expression and natural hazards protection.
To maximize the benefit provided by the recommendations, anti-terrorist considerations should be implemented at the earliest planning and design stages possible. This will ensure that the resulting design maximizes protection while integrating with other design considerations.
Description In this sub-section the threat, loads and damages resulting from explosions are explained. Threat Definition The primary threat is a stationary vehicle weapon located along a secured perimeter line surrounding the building see Figure 1.
Depending on the accessibility of the site to vehicles there may be more than one line of defense to consider. The outermost perimeter line is often a public street secured against vehicular intrusion using barriers and with limited secured access points. The size of the vehicle weapon considered outside the perimeter line may vary from hundreds to thousands of pounds of TNT equivalent depending on the criteria used.
Weapon sizes vary depending on the specific criteria used and may be obtained from the federal agency client on a need to know basis.
FEMAPrimer for Design of Commercial Buildings to Mitigate Terrorist Attacks This threat is to be considered on all sides of the building with a public street or adjacent property lines along the secured perimeter line.
Because air-blast loads decay rapidly with distance, the highest loads are at the base of the building and decay with height. Benefit of these reduced loads is usually not realized in terms of reduced design requirements except for high rise structures.
The required building setback may vary from tens to hundreds of feet depending on the criteria governing design.
This is a fundamental requirement of design and should not be taken lightly.Jul 14, · IIHS news release • April 14, New crash tests demonstrate the influence of vehicle size and weight on safety in crashes; results are relevant to fuel ec.
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