Personal life[ edit ] Family and training[ edit ] Karl Popper was born in Vienna then in Austria-Hungary in to upper-middle-class parents. All of Popper's grandparents were Jewishbut they were not devout and as part of the cultural assimilation process the Popper family converted to Lutheranism before he was born   and so he received a Lutheran baptism. Popper's uncle was the Austrian philosopher Josef Popper-Lynkeus.
Democratic approaches to parenting and families Adlerian approaches to classroom management Leadership and organisational psychology From its inception, Adlerian psychology has included both professional and lay adherents.
Adler felt that all people could make use of the scientific insights garnered by psychology and he welcomed everyone, from decorated academics to those with no formal education to participate in spreading the principles of Adlerian psychology.
He argued that human personality could be explained teleologically: If the corrective factors were disregarded and the individual overcompensated, then an inferiority complex would occur, fostering the danger of the individual becoming egocentric, power-hungry and aggressive or worse.
Unlike Freud's metapsychology that emphasizes instinctual demands, human psychology is guided by goals and fueled by a yet unknown creative force. Like Freud's instincts, Adler's fictive goals are largely unconscious. These goals have a "teleological" function.
Usually there is a fictional final goal which can be deciphered alongside of innumerable sub-goals.
For example, in anorexia nervosa the fictive final goal is to "be perfectly thin" overcompensation on the basis of a feeling of inferiority. Hence, the fictive final goal can serve a persecutory function that is ever-present in subjectivity though its trace springs are usually unconscious.
The end goal of being "thin" is fictive however since it can never be subjectively achieved. Teleology serves another vital function for Adlerians. Chilon's "hora telos" "see the end, consider the consequences" provides for both healthy and maladaptive psychodynamics. Here we also find Adler's emphasis on personal responsibility in mentally healthy subjects who seek their own and the social good.
Constructivism and metaphysics[ edit ] The metaphysical thread of Adlerian theory does not problematise the notion of teleology since concepts such as eternity an ungraspable end where time ceases to exist match the religious aspects that are held in tandem.
Here, 'teleology' itself is fictive yet experienced as quite real. Both Albert Ellis and Aaron T. Ellis in particular was a member of the North American Society for Adlerian Psychology and served as an editorial board member for the Adlerian Journal Individual Psychology.
Holism[ edit ] Metaphysical Adlerians emphasise a spiritual holism in keeping with what Jan Smuts articulated Smuts coined the term "holism"that is, the spiritual sense of one-ness that holism usually implies etymology of holism: Whilst Smuts' text Holism and Evolution is thought to be a work of science, it actually attempts to unify evolution with a higher metaphysical principle holism.
The sense of connection and one-ness revered in various religious traditions among these, Baha'i, Christianity, Judaism, Islam and Buddhism finds a strong complement in Adler's thought. This aspect of Adlerian psychology holds a high level of synergy with the field of community psychologyespecially given Adler's concern for what he called "the absolute truth and logic of communal life".
Adlerian psychology, Carl Jung 's analytical psychologyGestalt therapy and Karen Horney 's psychodynamic approach are holistic schools of psychology.
These discourses eschew a reductive approach to understanding human psychology and psychopathology. Nevertheless, he intended to illustrate patterns that could denote a characteristic governed under the overall style of life. Hence American Adlerians such as Harold Mosak have made use of Adler's typology in this provisional sense: They have low energy levels and so become dependent.
When overwhelmed, they develop what we typically think of as neurotic symptoms: The Avoiding types are those that hate being defeated.
They may be successful, but have not taken any risks getting there. They are likely to have low social contact in fear of rejection or defeat in any way. The Ruling or Dominant type strive for power and are willing to manipulate situations and people, anything to get their way.
People of this type are also prone to anti-social behavior. The Socially Useful types are those who are very outgoing and very active. They have a lot of social contact and strive to make changes for the good.
These 'types' are typically formed in childhood and are expressions of the Style of Life.There are many strengths of psycho-analytic theory, but it depends on the theory.
See my list of theories at: Systems Theory (Formal-, applied-, rubric-, etc.) under Psychological Systems. Psychoanalytic theory, or psychoanalysis, was developed by Sigmund Freud as a means of developing an understanding of the inner workings of the human mind. Psychoanalytic theory is concerned with the study of the id, ego and superego.
Port Manteaux churns out silly new words when you feed it an idea or two. Enter a word (or two) above and you'll get back a bunch of portmanteaux created by jamming together words that are conceptually related to your inputs..
For example, enter "giraffe" and you'll get . Freud by David Levine. This is a brief summary of existential psychoanalysis. Admittedly, Sigmund Freud was ahead of the times, and quite possibly the greatest psychologist of all time (discounting Nietzsche).
However, since he was a philosopher of sorts, its only fair to rip his theory philosophically and attempt to demonstrate its absurdity without invoking a strawman. Strengths And Weaknesses Of The Psychoanalytic Theory Sigmund Freud has investigated the Psychoanalytic Theory ( This theory caused great inconvenience when delivered and accepted a systematic war because Freud revealed the importance and impact of human sexual impulses stressing that culture is built over their oppression.
The Psychology of Conflict is one of the basic principles. SIMILARITIES AND DIFFERENCES BETWEEN FREUD AND ERIKSON’S PSYCHOANALYTICAL THEORIES OF DEVELOPMENT According to Sigmund Freud, personality is mostly established by the age of five. Early experiences play a large role in personality development and continue to influence behavior later in life.