Language English The Silences Framework TSF originally developed from a study incorporating politically sensitive and personally problematic concerns around gender, ethnicity and sexual behaviour. The concept connects the theoretical and philosophical approaches underpinning studies investigating areas of research and experience that are little researched, understood or silenced. The framework subsequently developed as a vehicle for researching marginalised perspectives or sensitive issues. The intent of this paper is to present the use of the framework as a vehicle for centralising ex-offender voices to inform development of nurse-led interventions for community based ex-offenders.
The increase in the number of people in the criminal justice system for drug-related crimes is startling. Between anddrug arrests tripled to 1,; 80 percent were for possession U. Department of Justice, b.
In6 percent of the offenders in State prisons and 25 percent of the offenders in Federal prisons had been incarcerated for drug offenses.
Bythere had been an elevenfold increase in the number of inmates in State prisons on drug offenses, and drug offenders constituted 23 percent of the State prison population.
For Federal prisons, the increase over the year period was twelvefold, with drug offenders constituting 60 percent of the prison population. This astronomical increase does not take into account the high number of individuals with substance abuse disorders who are arrested and incarcerated for drug-related crimes e.
In57 percent of State prison inmates had used drugs in the month prior to arrest, and one-sixth committed their offense to obtain money to buy drugs Mumola, The "war on drugs" has had a disproportionate impact on African Americans as a result of three overlapping policy decisions: Given the shortage of substance abuse treatment options in many inner cities, substance abuse in these communities is more likely to receive attention as a criminal justice problem than as a social problem The Sentencing Project, a.
As a result, African Americans who use illicit substances are arrested, convicted, and imprisoned at greater rates than other groups. While Federal surveys show that 13 percent of those who reported using drugs within the previous month are African American, this group constitutes 35 percent of those arrested for possession, 55 percent of those convicted, and 74 percent of those sentenced to prison Mauer and Huling, ; SAMHSA, a.
Department of Justice, a. The exponential increase in the number of individuals arrested and convicted of drug offenses and the disproportionate representation of African Americans in that group means that many drug and alcohol counselors are working with ex-offenders and that a large proportion of these ex-offender clients are African American.
A criminal record is an additional barrier to employment for anyone recovering from a substance abuse disorder. African Americans and members of other minorities including individuals without substance abuse and criminal histories also experience employment discrimination, sometimes subtle, sometimes not.
Counselors should be aware that the ex-offenders among their clients will have more difficulty finding work and that clients' experiences with discrimination may diverge along racial and ethnic lines.
This chapter describes the barriers ex-offenders seeking employment face and suggests ways for substance abuse treatment programs and counselors to help offenders overcome these barriers. These barriers tend to fall into two categories: Both types of barriers can be difficult, although not impossible, to overcome.
What the Offender Brings To the Process Each ex-offender is a unique individual; yet as a group, ex-offenders tend to bring the following common characteristics or attitudes to the process of vocational rehabilitation: Offenders face feelings of failure and hopelessness.
Ex-offenders tend to have a long history of failure behind them and may feel that there is little they can do to change their lives.
They may have failed at school, at relationships, and at crime, and may have little faith that they will find a job or that employment will make a difference in their lives.Feb 01, · Criminal offenders are a diverse group and may possess multiple stigmatized identities in addition to that of being a criminal offender.
For example, criminal offenders may possess stigmatized identities related to race, disability, mental illness, addiction, or HIV status.
THE EX-OFFENDER’S JOB INTERVIEW GUIDE: Turn Your Red Flags Into Green Lights This book covers preparing for the interview, anticipating questions, dealing with red flag questions, telling your story, closing the interview, following up, job offers and salaries.
Ex-offenders who fail to fulfill these new challenges do not merely leave the children in the same disadvantaged position as before, but they usually exacerbate the difficulties by becoming an additional demand upon the already diminished resources of that unit.
(hereinafter JREC) that will assist ex-offenders in gaining employment upon release from incarceration. Our study focused on the numerous barriers to employment, statistics of current ex-offender employment, current hiring trends of employers, as well as elements of success for ex-offenders returning to their communities after incarceration.
Jan 01, · “The distance between a prison and an ex-offender’s home community generally can be traversed by bus. But this conventional form of transportation masks the real distance the ex-offender must travel from incarceration to a successful reintegration into her community” (Thompson, , p.
). Reintegration of Ex-Offenders: New Paths to Achievement Workforce Innovations July 13, Anaheim, CA Offender Reintegration: Concept and Application David M.
Altschuler, PhD. July 11 - 13, 2 A Re-Entry Definition Re-entry refers to those activities and tasks that: • Prepare offenders for re-entry into the specific communities .