The RoHS exemptions stakeholder consultation has closed. It covered two requests for new exemptions.
ADVERTISE Post-occupancy evaluation of hybrid ventilation in schools Temperature and air quality in classrooms are known to affect learning, but new schools are often built on tight budgets and with low carbon ambitions. While hybrid systems come in many different configurations, natural ventilation with local mechanical recirculation of the incoming air is one common option where local conditions do not dictate otherwise.
SinceBAM Construct UK has installed local recirculation units by Breathing Buildings, Monodraught, Gilberts and other manufacturers on approximately two-thirds of its schools projects. This Evaluation of refurbishment projects and energy is likely to be the same for other design and build contractors.
Contractor-led post-occupancy evaluation POE was undertaken in four recently completed new-build — and one refurbished — school. Three of the schools use local recirculation units in classrooms, while the teaching spaces in one are fully mechanically ventilated, and — in the last — fully naturally ventilated.
Large windows retained sufficient daylight within the classrooms The POEs used a range of methods, including: This article draws out highlights and adds a construction perspective to a debate that is often dominated by design considerations.
The POEs revealed that teachers generally express satisfaction with the indoor environmental conditions in their classrooms, albeit more so in winter than in summer. Analysis of energy use found that electricity intensities were in line with expectations — lowest in the naturally ventilated school and highest in the mechanically ventilated one, with mixed-mode schools sitting in between.
In contrast, in the two schools where cross-ventilation was enabled — via roof terminals or automated roof lights in the atrium — there were higher levels of satisfaction with comfort and, particularly, with perceived air quality during warmer months. Automated roof lights enabled cross-ventilation After the technical walk-arounds, ventilation unit controls were recommissioned where required, to improve conditions.
Teachers were also retrained in the use of the boost buttons, because it was clear from questionnaires and conversations that many of them did not understand how the hybrid ventilation units worked.
Overall, construction team feedback on local recirculation units for hybrid ventilation was positive. Project teams had worked with units from different manufacturers and their quality was found to be comparable, so procurement decisions are largely made on cost grounds.
Unit dimensions — mm H x 1,mm to 1,mm D x mm W — are fairly substantial, so the fact that units will be visible in the classrooms needs to be considered during design development. In the case study projects, some users had different expectations about how things would look in classrooms.
There were few buildability concerns with the hybrid ventilation units. For refurbishments, low floor-to-ceiling heights and narrow ceiling voids have been highlighted as considerations in relation to unit sizes.
To maximise room heights in the refurbishment case study, classroom ceilings were only lowered in the part of the room where the hybrid ventilation unit was installed. In rooms where several units were required to meet higher ventilation requirements — for example, a dance studio — the entire ceiling was lowered.
Both solutions looked fine, aesthetically, and retained sufficient daylight because of the large windows, while highlighting the flexibility and practicality of local recirculation units for refurbishment projects. Overall, the analysis adds to the growing body of evidence that hybrid ventilation based on local air recirculation is an effective solution to achieve acceptable comfort conditions in general classrooms, while offering value for money.
It was also highlighted that local recirculation units can have operational benefits by reducing system complexity and maintenance requirements compared with full mechanical ventilation. This is particularly relevant for small or stand-alone schools that operate on limited operational budgets and may not benefit from specialist facilities management FM support.
Hybrid classroom ventilation has its limitations, however.
Especially where ventilation is single-sided, there can be concerns about perceived air quality and, in particular, thermal comfort levels during summer. At the same time, cross-ventilation can support thermal comfort during hot periods where the design provides for it.
Manufacturers of hybrid ventilation units are working to address further overheating concerns. Local recirculation units may be combined with a ground or air source heat pump to add pre-heating or cooling to the incoming air.
Within BAM Construct UK, the data from post-occupancy studies will be used to improve specifications, buildability and performance of future projects.Here we have highlighted some key projects that we have worked on in New Zealand and Australia within our four key market sectors, which are: Land & Building, Water .
Babangida I; Olubodun F and Kangwa J () Building refurbishment: Holistic evaluation of barriers and opportunities In: Smith, S.D (Ed) Procs 28th Annual ARCOM Conference, September , Edinburgh, UK, Association of Researchers in Construction Management, The European “Smart Cities & Communities Initiative” of the Strategic Energy Technology Plan (SET-Plan) supports cities and regions in taking ambitious measures to progress by towards a 40% reduction of greenhouse gas emissions through sustainable use and production of energy.
Evaluation of Hydropower Upgrade Projects significant amount of refurbishment in order to both maintain production capacity and comply with The Norwegian Water Resources and Energy Directorate states that the potential in refurbishment and.
Below is a list of all of the Value for Money Reviews which were completed between – Links are provided to the VFMR where available. RR Projects - Power Industry Project Management.
GE Oil & Gas, Nuovo Pignone. RR Projects have completed the installation of the Power generation unit for GE Oil & Gas, Nuovo Pignone at the Iggesund Paper Mill in Workington, Cumbria, England.